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Constitution

Adopted in December 1964, Paris France
Revised in October 2008, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Table of content

PREAMBLE

The International Radiation Protection Association, IRPA, is an international organisation that enlists individuals as members who are also members of an affiliated national or regional Associate Society. Its primary purpose is to provide a medium whereby those engaged in radiation protection activities in all countries may communicate more readily with each other and through this process advance radiation protection in many parts of the world.

The IRPA accepts as an affiliate only one Associate Society in each country. It does not infringe upon the autonomy of the Associate Society leaving the Society free to function effectively in radiation protection activities of local, national or regional interest. It provides a medium whereby the Associate Society may share in radiation protection activities at the international level. The IRPA depends upon the Associate Society to recruit its members. It requires that membership in the IRPA be contingent upon membership in good standing in an Associate Society. It prescribes in a general way the qualifications for membership in the Associate Society and each member of the Associate Society automatically becomes a member of the IRPA.

The IRPA recognises the individual member as a most important element in its corporate structure. It derives its power to function directly from its members and its activities are guided by the members through conventional democratic processes.

Control over the activities of the IRPA is vested in a General Assembly. The General Assembly, a parliamentary body consisting of a comparatively large number of individuals, is composed of the members of the Executive Council and delegates elected by and from the voting membership of the Associate Societies. The number of delegates allocated to the membership of an Associate Society is based on the number of members enrolled in the Associate Society. The General Assembly meets about every four years at the time of an IRPA International Congress.

The administration of the affairs of the IRPA is vested by the General Assembly in the Executive Council. The Executive Council includes the officers of the IRPA plus six Executive Council members. The officers and other members of the Executive Council are elected either directly or indirectly by the General Assembly.

The IRPA recognises that its most important functions include the holding of an IRPA International Congress about every four years, the sponsorship of Regional Congresses and other international meetings, and the sponsorship of scientific and technical publications in the field of radiation protection.

The IRPA activities are financed from dues paid by the Associate Societies, from grants and gifts, and from the proceeds of IRPA congresses and other international meetings.

ARTICLE I: NAME

Section 1

The name of this international body shall be the INTERNATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION ASSOCIATION, which may be referred to in abbreviated form as the IRPA, and is hereinafter designated as the ASSOCIATION.

ARTICLE II: OBJECTIVES

Section 1

The primary objective of the Association is to provide a medium whereby international contacts and co operation may be promoted among those engaged in radiation protection work, which includes relevant aspects of such branches of knowledge as science, medicine, engineering, technology and law, in the effort to provide for the protection of people and the environment from the hazards caused by ionizing and non ionizing radiation and thereby to facilitate in fact the exploitation of radiation and nuclear energy for the benefit of mankind.

Section 2

The activities of the Association are those appropriate to the accomplishment of its primary objective, namely to:

  1. encourage the establishment of radiation protection societies throughout the world as a means of achieving international co operation among those engaged in radiation protection,
  2. provide for and support international meetings for the discussion of all aspects of radiation protection,
  3. encourage international publications dedicated to radiation protection,
  4. encourage research and educational opportunities in those scientific and related disciplines which support radiation protection,
  5. encourage the establishment and continuous review of universally acceptable radiation protection standards or recommendations through the international bodies concerned, and,
  6. undertake any other matters appropriate to the Association.

Section 3

The Association is a non profit organisation. Its funds shall be used exclusively to further the objectives stated inSection 1.supra.

ARTICLE III: MEMBERSHIP AND ASSOCIATE SOCIETIES

Section 1

The Association consists of individual members grouped in national or regional societies. The members of the Associate Societies automatically become members of the Association and membership in the Association shall be contingent upon membership in good standing in one of the Associate Societies.

Section 2

The Associate Society shall be an organisation of a national or regional character and a Society may form chapters, branches or sections, to function under its jurisdiction in accordance with its stated objectives. Twenty or more individuals in one or more countries may join together to form an Associate Society. No more than one Associate Society is authorised to function in any one country. The United Nations definition and recognition of countries is used. Where individuals join together in two or more countries to form an Associate Society, the individuals in any one of these countries may, at their discretion, apply for and be granted Associate Society status upon meeting the requirements of the Association for Associate Society status.

Section 3

An Associate Society may, in accordance with its stated procedures, elect to full membership in the Society, and hence in the Association, reputable persons who (i) have graduated from a University, an accredited school of college grade, or equivalent institution, or have recognised scientific, technological or professional qualifications or, in exceptional cases, have equivalent training and (ii) are regularly engaged in one or more appropriate aspects of radiation protection or, in appropriate cases, have an interest and competence in one or more such aspects at a level commensurate with acceptable levels of performance in the country or region where the Society functions. Appropriate aspects of radiation protection are considered to include, but are not necessarily limited to, applied activities, research, education and training, or administrative and regulatory functions. Full members may hold office in the Association.

Section 4

An Associate Society may, in accordance with its stated procedures, elect to associate membership in the Society, and hence in the Association, reputable persons who do not meet the requirements for full membership. Conditions for associate membership are decided by the Society, and there may be more than one type of associate membership. Associate members shall, however, not be eligible for election as delegates to the General Assembly, as members of the Executive Council, nor as Officers of the Association.

Section 5

If an annual membership card (or certificate) is issued by an Associate Society to its members, it should include, as minimum wording, the following:

This is to certify that

.......................................... (name)
.......................................... (address)

is (a full member/an associate member) in good standing in the

NAME OF SOCIETY
..........................................

and the

INTERNATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION ASSOCIATION

The date of issuance and the date at which time the membership card (or certificate) is no longer valid, as determined by the statutes of the Associate Society relative to continuing membership in the Society, should appear on some part of the membership card (or certificate).

Section 6

Associate Society status may be obtained upon application to the Executive Officer followed by approval of the Executive Council in accordance with the published rules of the Council providing that:

  1. qualifications for membership in the Society and the stated objectives and purposes of the Society are consistent with the provisions of the Constitution of the Association, and
  2. the Society has adopted a published Code of Ethics consistent with the IRPA Code of Ethics;
  3. the procedure for the selection of members and duly authorised representatives of the Society are designed to express the will of the majority of the members of the Society. A duly authorised representative is one who speaks for the Society and has been empowered under the statutes of the Society to perform certain acts in the name of the Society.

Section 7

Each Associate Society is required to send to the Executive Officer any changes in its constitution or rules as and when these become effective and at any time, on request, a copy of the current constitution and/or rules of the Society.

Section 8

An Associate Society may terminate its affiliation with the Association by having its duly authorised representative communicate in writing a termination request to the Executive Officer of the Association. Individuals who hold membership in a Society that terminates its affiliation with the Association may apply for membership in other Associate Societies.

Section 9

An Associate Society may be expelled by decision of the General Assembly at any regular meeting of the General Assembly because of failure to pay its dues or for any other action judged to be against the best interests of the Association. When expulsion of an Associate Society is undertaken by the General Assembly, the duly authorised representatives of the Society shall be given at least six months advance notice that the matter of expulsion will be placed before the General Assembly with the reasons therefore. Under no circumstances can an Associate Society be expelled from the Association if

  1. the advance notice fails to give the reasons for expulsion proceedings,
  2. the duly authorised representatives of the Society have not been given an opportunity for a hearing before the General Assembly at which the vote for expulsion is to be taken, and
  3. less than two thirds of those present and voting is for expulsion.

ARTICLE IV: FINANCIAL SUPPORT

Section 1

The Association is supported financially, in part, by annual dues paid by the Associate Societies.

Section 2

The annual dues are determined by the General Assembly.

Section 3

Dues for each calendar year are calculated as of November 1st of the preceding calendar year and paid by the Associate Society to the Treasurer of the Association on or before January 31st following. The annual dues payment shall be accompanied by a statement providing the number of full members and the number of associate members of the Society.

Section 4

In cases where an individual holds membership in two or more Associate Societies, for purposes of dues payments to the Association, the individual shall be counted as a member of each Society in which membership is held, and each Society in which membership is held shall tender dues in this person’s name.

Section 5

Financial support of the Association, in addition to the annual dues from the Associate Societies, may include grants, gifts, and the proceeds from publications, IRPA Congresses and other international meetings as may be decided by the Executive Council. The Associate Societies may assess and collect membership dues to cover the cost of local operations, and they may supplement such financial support by any other appropriate means. However, no grant, donation or gift may be accepted by the Association or Associate Societies if it prejudices or compromises the objectives as stated inArticle IIsupra, or if it interferes with the free expression of opinion of individual members or of officers of the Associate Society or of the Association.

ARTICLE V: ADMINISTRATION

Section 1

The executive functions of the Association are performed by the officers, upon approval of the Executive Council, and as delegated by the General Assembly. The officers are the President, the Vice President of the Association, the Vice President for Congress Affairs, the Executive Officer, the Publications Director and the Treasurer.

Section 2

Committees, Commissions, and groups of Associate Societies other than provided for in the Constitution may be appointed by, or on behalf of, the Executive Council to deal with specified activities of the Association and subject to any conditions the Executive Council may lay down.

Section 3

A permanent Secretariat, with branch offices as required, may be established in such place, or places, as are designated by the General Assembly. The function of the Secretariat is to maintain the records of the Association and to serve as general headquarters for the Association. The supervision of the Secretariat and its branch offices is the responsibility of the Executive Officer.

ARTICLE VI: OFFICERS

Section 1

The President shall be elected by the General Assembly from amongst the members of the Executive Council. The election shall be by secret ballot. All members of the Executive Council, except a duly elected incumbent President, are eligible for election to the office of President. Their nomination to the office is automatic, and the approval of an absolute majority of the delegates present or voting by proxy is required to elect. If the President is not elected on the first ballot, the nominee receiving the least number of votes is dropped from each succeeding ballot until a President has been elected.

The President is the Chair of the Executive Council, and the General Assembly. In the President’s absence, the Chair shall be the Vice President of the Association if present. In the absence of both President and Vice President of the Association:

  1. at a meeting of the Executive Council, the members present shall elect a Chair;
  2. at a meeting of the General Assembly, the Executive Council shall appoint one of its members to be the Chair.

Section 2

The Vice President of the Association is elected by the General Assembly. The election shall be by secret ballot. All members of the Executive Council except a duly elected incumbent President or a duly elected incumbent Vice President of the Association are eligible for election to the office of Vice President of the Association. Their nomination to the office is automatic. If fewer than two members of the Executive Council are willing to be nominated, the Executive Council may nominate former members of the Executive Council who are willing to serve or, if necessary, other members of the Association who have demonstrated, by service to the Association, their suitability for high office. The approval of an absolute majority of delegates voting in person or by proxy is required to elect. The Vice President of the Association automatically takes over the duties of the President during any absence or inability to act.

Section 3

The Vice President for Congress Affairs is nominated by the Associate Society (or Societies) that will host the next International Congress and election is automatic when the invitation to host the International Congress has been approved. There is not eligibility for self succession in the office of Vice President for Congress Affairs.

The Vice President for Congress Affairs in consultation with the President is responsible for organising the International Congress and acting as liaison between the Executive Council and the host Society (or Societies).

Section 4

The Executive Officer is appointed by the Executive Council, subject to the approval of the General Assembly and is eligible for reappointment. The Executive Officer is ex officio Chair of the Rules Committee.

The primary duties of the Executive Officer are:

  1. to manage the permanent Secretariat;
  2. to be responsible for the correspondence of the Association;
  3. to keep a list of the officers of each Associate Society with their contact information. This list shall be revised at least yearly upon receipt of information from the Societies;
  4. to keep minutes of all meetings of the General Assembly and the Executive Council; and
  5. to perform other duties as may be provided for in the rules of the Executive Council.

Section 5

The Publications Director is appointed by the Executive Council subject to the approval of the General Assembly and is eligible for reappointment. The Publications Director represents the Executive Council in all matters involving publications. Other duties include being the Chair of the Commission on Publications, as well as being the liaison between the Executive Council and the editorial staffs of the publications of the Association and the Associate Societies.

Section 6

The Treasurer is appointed by the Executive Council subject to the approval of the General Assembly and is eligible for reappointment. The primary duties of the Treasurer are:

  1. to establish a mechanism for the receipt of all monies payable to the Association and to cause such monies to be deposited in appropriate accounts of the Association;
  2. to remind the secretary of each Associate Society not later than November 1st of each year:
    1. to provide a statement of membership and offers as required inArticle IVsupra, and
    2. to forward the dues on or before January 31st,
  3. to cause to be drawn all drafts and cheques on the accounts of the Association for the payment of bills against the Association or the transfer of funds from the accounts of the Association provided:
    1. all such, expenditures are within the annual budget approved by the Executive Council, or as specifically approved by the Executive Council and
    2. the accounts of the Association shall be established un such a manner as to leave the Executive Council free to withdraw or transfer funds from the accounts of the Association should the Treasurer become incapacitated or otherwise unqualified to perform and
  4. to keep proper financial records which shall be audited as provided inArticle XIinfra.

Section 7

If an officer is temporarily incapacitated and/or requires assistance in the performance of the duties of the office, the Executive Council shall make such arrangements as it considers necessary. When a deputy is appointed under these provisions, the deputy’s:

  1. duties and authority to act on behalf of the officer shall be defined by the Executive Council and
  2. tenure of office ends when
    1. his assistance is no longer required by the officer or
    2. a new officer is chosen and installed in the office.

Section 8

If an officer, while in office, dies, is permanently incapacitated, or resigns from office in writing, the Executive Council may appoint a member of the Association to fill the vacancy thereby created until the next General Assembly elects or appoints a successor. Such appointment by the Executive Council shall not prevent the individual concerned from being elected or appointed to the same office by the General Assembly as if that person had not been so appointed by the Executive Council. In the case of the President, the appointment must be made from among the members of the Executive Council and will normally be the Vice President of the Association. In the case of the Vice President for Congress Affairs, the Executive Council may only make such an appointment after consulting the Society or Societies responsible for the next IRPA International Congress.

ARTICLE VII: EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

Section 1

FUNCTION: The Executive Council has the responsibility for the general management of the affairs of the Association performing those functions as are provided for in the Constitution or by direction of the General Assembly. However, no member of the Executive Council shall be held responsible personally for any consequences of decisions taken by the Executive Council in performing its functions as described here, and in particular for any debts the Association might incur.

Section 2

MEMBERSHIP: The Executive Council shall be composed of twelve members consisting of

  1. six Executive Council members who represent the General Assembly and are elected by and from the General Assembly, and
  2. six ex officio members who also serve in a representative capacity to include: the President, the Vice President of the Association, the Vice President for Congress Affairs, the Executive Officer, the Publications Director, and the Treasurer.
  3. In selecting the members of the Executive Council the General Assembly shall give consideration to maintaining a balance in representation among the Associate Societies. No individual shall serve, as a member of the Executive Council in more than one representative capacity at any one time and each member of the Council shall have one vote.

Section 3

TERMS OF OFFICE: The term of office of each Officer and Executive Council member begins at the end of the International Congress (or General Assembly, if this is held other than at the time of an International Congress) at which that person is elected. In the case of an Officer, the tenure of office shall last until a new President takes office after election by a General Assembly. An Executive Council member is elected to serve through two presidential terms except that arrangements shall be made so that at least three Executive Council members shall be elected at the end of each presidential term.

Section 4

VACANCIES: A vacancy occurs on the Executive Council when a designated term expires, a member resigns his or her seat or ceases to function because of death or other circumstances. If a member whose term has not expired is elected to another office on the Executive Council that member serves in the newly elected capacity leaving a vacancy to be filled on the Executive Council. If a vacancy occurs in a seat held by members of the Executive Council, the Council might make an appointment to fill the unexpired term until such time as the seat may be filled by action of the General Assembly.

Section 5

The Executive Council shall meet prior to each meeting of the General Assembly and at other times subject to the rules of the Council or at the discretion of the Chair.

Section 6

ADVISORS: The President, with the concurrence of the Executive Council may appoint non-voting advisors to fulfil particular functions as needed.

Section 7

RULES: The Executive Council shall formulate and publish a set of rules by which the Association is governed. All such rules shall be consistent with the directives of the General Assembly and the provisions of the Constitution and shall be construed to secure a speedy and inexpensive administration of the affairs of the Association commensurate with sound practice. The rules become effective when transmitted to the duly authorised representatives of the Associate Societies, and have official status until amended or revoked by action of the Council or by direction of the General Assembly. In general:

  1. The rules shall provide that no affirmative action can be taken by the Executive Council unless sanctioned by at least seven voting members of the Executive Council and if a vote is to be taken at a regularly scheduled meeting of the Executive Council, a member may be represented by his proxy.
  2. The rules shall be specific as to the duties of the officers and the voting membership of the Executive Council shall vest the officers with such authority as may be required for the efficient execution of these duties. The rules shall provide for the bonding of any officer or agent who will be responsible for substantial sums of money where this is practicable and not unduly expensive. The rules shall also provide for equally acceptable alternative security measures where bonding is not carried out.
  3. The rules shall provide for a Commission on Publications which is responsible for the establishment and management of the official publication of the Association under the Chair of the Publications Director.
  4. The rules shall establish criteria by which acceptance or rejection of an applicant for Associate Society status is determined.
  5. No rule shall be formulated which violates the independence of any Associate Society. The Associate Societies are autonomous in their own right and are free to pursue their objectives and those of the Association in any manner consistent with sound management and in compliance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Association.
  6. The rules shall specify the general arrangements to be followed in the organisation of an IRPA International or Regional Congress.
  7. The rules may include other matters as may be considered appropriate and not inconsistent with the provisions of the Constitution.

ARTICLE VIII: GENERAL ASSEMBLY

Section 1

The General Assembly is the representative body of the Association and, as such, shall have, hold and control all funds, properties, and activities of the Association. The General Assembly may delegate as much of its power and authority to the Executive Council as is appropriate for the efficient administration of the affairs of the Association and these delegated powers are effective until revoked by action of the General Assembly.

Section 2

The members of the General Assembly include:

  1. the members of the Executive Council and
  2. delegates elected by and from the membership of the Associate Society in which the individual member is enrolled. Any full member of the Association, except members of the Executive Council, is eligible to serve as a delegate to the General Assembly and the number of delegates eligible to attend the General Assembly in any one calendar year shall be based on the number of full members included on the annual list used for calculating the dues for that year (Article IV, Section 3.supra) as follows:

 

Number of full members shown on the annual listNumber of delegates eligible to attend the General Assembly
less than 50 2
50 - 149 3
150 - 300 4
over 300* 4 + (N - 300) / 200

 

  1. * In applying the above formula, where the number of full members exceeds 300: N equals the total number of full members shown on the annual list. Fractions are treated as whole numbers.

Section 3

If, on 1st March in the year of a General Assembly, the Treasurer has not received from an Associate Society all dues payable by that date, that Society shall be in default. Unless the General Assembly accepts, on the recommendation of the Executive Council, that the dues concerned were remitted to the Treasurer in good time and that any delay is outside the control of the Society concerned, it shall forfeit the right of its members to send delegates to the General Assembly during that calendar year and will be subject to expulsion from the Association in accordance withArticle III, Section 8, supra.

Section 4

Each member of the General Assembly shall have one vote in the General Assembly when privileged. A member is privileged when the action sought is not restricted by procedural rules adopted for the conduct of the meeting and the action is not in conflict with the provisions of the Constitution.

Section 5

If a delegate is unable to attend a meeting of her General Assembly, the delegation may authorise another member of the Association to represent him as a proxy with the right to cast his or her votes. The delegate desiring to be represented by a proxy shall submit a written authorisation to the Executive Officer giving the name and address of the member chosen as representative. The written authorisation is effective for all sessions of the General Assembly at which the proxy is present and the delegate is absent unless the written authorisation limits the voting privileges of the proxy to specific sessions or special issues.

Section 6

The members of the Executive Council are ex officio members of the General Assembly and attend the sessions of the General Assembly as aides to the President of the Association. When an individual who has been elected as a delegate to the General Assembly becomes a member of the Executive Council, the title of delegate is vacated and the members of the represented Associate Society are entitled to a replacement by an alternate delegate until such time as a permanent replacement may be made.

Section 7

The General Assembly shall meet at each IRPA International Congress and holds as many sessions as necessary to accomplish its business at a time which does not conflict with the scientific and technical sessions.

Section 8

In the event of urgent business requiring a decision by the General Assembly between IRPA International Congresses, the President may either:

  1. call a special session of the General Assembly solely to discuss and vote on the urgent business specified, provided that the Associate Societies indicate that the number of delegates at such a meeting would constitute a quorum, or
  2. submit the urgent business to the Associate Societies for a vote by correspondence, in which case a decision requires the agreement of the replies from Associate Societies possessing between them a simple majority of the membership of a General Assembly. The President has a vote only in the event of a tie. If, however, the replies from Associate Societies possessing between them two thirds of the membership of a General Assembly so request, a special session of the General Assembly shall be held.

For the purposes of a vote by correspondence conducted between meetings of the General Assembly, the members of the General Assembly entitled to vote shall be those who were elected as delegates to the last previous meeting of the General Assembly or, where a delegate has appointed a proxy, that proxy instead of that delegate. If a delegate cannot participate because he or she has died, is no longer a member of the Associate Society, is now a member of the Executive Council or is not available, the Associate Society may elect or appoint another member.

Section 9

The decisions of the General Assembly, with the exception of the cases designated inArticles III,XVandXVI, are reached by a simple majority of the members present or represented by proxy. In case of a tie vote, the Chair may cast the deciding vote; otherwise the Chair shall have no vote.

Section 10

Two thirds of the voting members of the General Assembly, including proxies, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business.

Section 11

It shall be the duty of the President and the Executive Council to provide for an agenda which covers every aspect of business that should be brought before the General Assembly. At least two months prior to the convening of the General Assembly, the agenda shall be sent to the secretary of each of the Associate Societies for distribution to its delegates.

Section 12

Ample time shall be allowed for discussion of each item on the agenda, and any member of the General Assembly may participate in the discussion, move or second resolutions and vote unless the member is in a position in which any or all of these are forbidden by this Constitution or the Rules.

Section 13

The General Assembly receives the reports and recommendations of the Executive Council, examines the accounts, elects or confirms the appointment of the officers and Executive Council members, selects the place of the Secretariat and the IRPA International Congresses, prescribes the dues and performs any other duty as required by these statutes.

Section 14

In case a General Assembly scheduled to meet at an IRPA International Congress is attended by less than two thirds of the voting members personally or by proxy, essential business matters involving the Association may be carried forward by the Executive Council in accordance with the stated rules of the Association in the same manner as if no IRPA International Congress had taken place or no meeting of the General Assembly had been called or scheduled. In this case the members of the Executive Council continue in office until replaced by appropriate action of the General Assembly.

ARTICLE IX: IRPA INTERNATIONAL CONGRESSES

Section 1

The Association shall hold an IRPA International Congress at intervals of about four years at such time and place as may be designated by the General Assembly. The primary purpose of the IRPA International Congress is to provide a means whereby the members may discuss their professional experiences, exchange ideas, and acquaint themselves with the scientific and technical problems of their international colleagues.

Section 2

An IRPA International Congress may be held in any country, and one Society alone, or two or more together, may assume responsibility for hosting the Congress.

Section 3

Expressions of interest to host an International Congress received by the Executive Officer at least eight years and three months in advance shall be reported to the next General Assembly for its consideration and an indication of preference. The Associate Society or Societies responsible for the preferred option shall develop a detailed proposal as specified inSection 4below.

Section 4

The detailed proposal to the General Assembly to host the next IRPA International Congress shall be made in accordance with the Rules of Administrative Procedures on the Organization of an IRPA International Congress and shall be submitted to the Executive Officer at least eighteen months before the General Assembly at which the final approval will be sought. If the General Assembly rejects the detailed proposal, the Executive Council shall seek an alternative proposal to recommend to the General Assembly for its approval, if necessary by a vote by correspondence.

Section 5

The budget for the International Congress shall include an amount determined by the Executive Council for net proceeds to the Association treasury. Any net proceeds in excess of that amount following an audit or review of the International Congress accounts (Article XI, Section 1, infra) shall be distributed as defined in the Rules of Administrative Procedures on the Organization of an IRPA International Congress.

ARTICLE X: GENERAL AND FINANCIAL REPORTS

Section 1

The Executive Council shall submit to the General Assembly a report on the general state and proceedings of the Association for the period since the most recent meeting of the General Assembly.

Section 2

The Treasurer shall prepare for the Executive Council a financial statement for the period between IRPA International Congresses which shall submit it to the General Assembly. This financial statement shall include a copy of the audits, or reviews as provided for inArticle XIinfra.

ARTICLE XI: AUDIT AND ACCOUNTS

Section 1

The accounts of the Treasurer of the Association shall be audited or independently reviewed, according to the usual practices of the country where the accounts are held, by a suitably qualified person, approved the Executive Council. The accounts shall be audited or reviewed for each fiscal year and at such other time or times and for such other periods as the Executive Council may deem advisable. The auditor or reviewer shall furnish reports on such reviews and make available an annual report of reviews completed. The accounts of IRPA International Congresses shall also be audited or independently reviewed by a suitably qualified person according to the usual practices of the country and presented through the Treasurer to the Executive Council as soon as possible after the close of the Congress to which they relate.

Section 2

The Executive Council shall consider each auditor’s or reviewer’s report to decide whether any of the activities or procedures of the Association require modification.

Section 3

The accounts kept by the Treasurer for the period between IRPA International Congresses together with the annual reports of the auditor or reviewer shall be presented to the General Assembly at each IRPA International Congress or more often if directed by the General Assembly.

ARTICLE XII: BUDGET

Section 1

Prior to an IRPA International Congress, the Treasurer shall prepare for the Executive Council a detailed proposed budget for the next period following the IRPA International Congress. It is sent to duly authorised representatives of the Associate Societies at least 12 months before the IRPA International Congress and suggested modifications, if any, must be returned to the Executive Officer at least three months prior to the convening of the General Assembly at the IRPA International Congress. The final proposed budget shall be placed on the agenda of the General Assembly for discussion and approval.

ARTICLE XIII: ADDITIONS TO THE AGENDA OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

Section 1

Any proposal, question or suggestion originating through the duly authorised representatives of an Associate Society and received by the Executive Officer at least three months prior to the convening of the General Assembly must be placed on the Agenda. Proposals received from an Associate Society after the three months time limit may be presented at the meeting of the General Assembly in accordance with the provisions ofArticle VIII, Section 11supra.

Section 2

Any member of the Association may present a proposal, question or suggestion to the General Assembly by requesting the Executive Council to place it on the Agenda for the next meeting of the General Assembly. Proposals, questions or suggestions submitted by a member under this procedure are sent to the Executive Officer. Such proposals, if received by the Executive Officer at least three months prior to the convening of the General Assembly, shall be submitted to the members of the Executive Council and, if approved by seven or more members of the Council, the proposal shall be placed on the Agenda of the General Assembly.

ARTICLE XIV: RULES AND PROCEDURES

Section 1

The Rules of Administrative Procedure shall provide for a Rules Committee on which each Associate Society is entitled to have a representative.

Section 2

The Rules Committee shall carry out the following tasks as required:

  1. Resolve any conflict over the interpretation of the Constitution or the Rules when so requested by either:
    1. the Executive Council,
    2. the General Assembly,
    3. a petition bearing the signatures of at least 200 members of the Association, or
    4. any Associate Society,
    and its decision shall be final unless revoked by the General Assembly.
  2. When requested by the Executive Council, advise it on any proposed new Rules, or amendments to the Constitution.
  3. Resolve any doubt, difficulty or conflict over the credentials of any delegation or delegate to the General Assembly when so requested by the Executive Council, and its decision shall be final unless revoked by the General Assembly.

ARTICLE XV: AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION

Section 1

Amendments to the Constitution may be proposed by:

  1. the Executive Council,
  2. the duly authorised representatives of one or more Associate Societies, or
  3. a petition bearing the authorised signatures of 200 or more members of the Association. Proposed amendments shall be submitted to the Executive Officer not later than three months prior to a meeting of the General Assembly and are made a part of the written Agenda submitted to the delegates to the General Assembly in accordance with the provisions ofArticle VIII, Section 11, supra.

Section 2

The Constitution may be amended only by the affirmative vote of at least two thirds of the members of the General Assembly present and voting.

ARTICLE XVI: DISSOLUTION OF THE ASSOCIATION

Section 1

A decision to dissolve the Association can be reached at any scheduled meeting of the General Assembly provided proposals to that effect have been sent to the duly authorised representatives of the Associate Societies at least six months in advance of the scheduled meeting.

Section 2

A proposal to dissolve the Association can be advanced by the Executive Council or by three or more Associate Societies.

Section 3

Approval of the proposal to dissolve the Association requires the affirmative vote of two thirds of the membership of the General Assembly present and voting at the meeting.

Section 4

If dissolution has been approved, the residual funds of the Association shall, after discharge of all financial obligations, be transferred to the Associate Societies and distributed in proportion to the membership of each individual Society as of the preceding 1st November to the total membership of the Association.